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Bibliography

All Websites/books accessed October – December 2010

http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2010/sep/04/corinne-day-kate-moss Sheryl Garratt. The Guardian, Saturday 4 September 2010

http://www.prioryhealthcare.com/Personal-Site/Mental-Health-and-Addictions/What–We-Treat/Eating-Disorders/Statistics-for-eating-disorders.aspx

http://www.disordered-eating.co.uk/eating-disorders-statistics/anorexia-nervosa-statistics-uk.html

http://www.miafriends.org/boxx/knowledgebase.asp?iid=65&Cat=16

http://pro-thinspo.com/proanatipsandtricksindexpage.html

http://anaregzig.blogspot.com/

http://www.medialit.org/reading-room/language-media-literacy-glossary-terms

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metatextuality

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypertextuality

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metatextuality

http://www.kolumbus.fi/mareske/page231.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2005/oct/18/classics.shopping accessed 22/11/2010. Emily Wilson. The Guardian. Tuesday 18 October 2005.

Lily Allen. Everything’s Just Wonderful. Off album: All Right Still.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n_ZW_pUQx2s Lily Allen. Everything’s Just Wonderful.

http://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/22393.Naomi_Wolf

http://www.renfrewcenter.com/uploads/resources/1067338472_1.doc Downloadable PDF

From her address at Dying to be Thin: The prevention of eating disorders and the role of Federal policy, An APA Co-Sponsored Congressional Briefing – July, 1997. Naomi Wolf

http://www.theredmountainpost.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/naomi-wolf-2.jpg

http://haergar06.files.wordpress.com/2010/04/beauty-myth.jpg

http://www.thevine.com.au/resources/GALLIMAGE/300608103040_kate_moss_lily_allen_01_wen.jpg

The Beauty Myth: How images of beauty are used against women. Naomi Wolf. 2002. ISBN0-06051-2180

Chandler, Daniel. (2001). Semiotics: The Basics. London: Routledge.
1st edition. ISBN0-415-26593-2. Page 2

http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=denotation

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denotation_%28semiotics%29

http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=connotation

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Connotation_%28semiotics%29

Nancy Rosenberg. Helium.com. Unknown date.
http://www.helium.com/items/145448-a-brief-history-of-fashion-trends?page=2

http://entimg.msn.com/i/filmfashion/DesperatelySeekingSusan_300x298.jpg

http://x48.xanga.com/51bf57e510733255810239/z203445185.jpg

http://www.refinery29.com/pipeline/img/madonna-leotard-mania.jpg

http://www.wmagazine.com/images/fashion/2010/02/faar_madonna_01_h.jpg

http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=glamour

http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=anti

http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=synthetic

http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=real

http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=clean

http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=unclean

http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4081/4923382022_1bd2f7708c_z.jpg (Image)

http://www.corinneday.co.uk

http://www.corinneday.co.uk/exhibitions.php?action=zoom&id=164&exhibition_id=1

http://www.fashionmodeldirectory.com/models/georgina_cooper/

http://www.premiermodelmanagement.com/ViewByTalent.aspx?TtId=1123

http://forums.thefashionspot.com/f78/face-1980-2004-a-63667-11.html

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=myh9ELiJKFs&feature=player_embedded

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EupnRvikv00

http://www.google.co.uk/images?q=georgina+cooper&oe=utf-8&rls=org.mozilla:en-
GB:official&client=firefox-a&um=1&ie=UTF-8&source=univ&ei=HXflTNzWN4SAhAf1r-2MDQ&sa=X&oi=image_result_group&ct=title&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQsAQwAA&biw=1024&bih=394

http://www.mielofon.com/model/georgina_cooper/

http://www.playlust.net/wp/?p=6305

http://www.dazeddigital.com/photography/article/8239/1/corinne-day-1965—2010

http://www.corinneday.co.uk/home.php

http://www.helium.com/items/581015-artist-profile-nan-goldin

http://www.brain-juice.com/cgi-bin/show_bio.cgi?p_id=88

http://www.art-directory.info/photography/nan-goldin-1953/index.shtml

http://www.biography.com/articles/Nan-Goldin-40567

http://images.artnet.com/artwork_images_553_20714_nan-goldin.jpg

http://krystiandata.files.wordpress.com/2010/05/nan_goldin-battered.jpg

http://media.onsugar.com/files/ed4/2009/12/52/258/2589278/1defb8a7548d2141_COLE.jpg

http://images2.fanpop.com/images/photos/8400000/Kristen-Stewart-s-Interview-Shoot-kristen-stewart-8440778-403-304.jpg

http://entimg.msn.com/i/paralleluniverse/493/kristenstewart2_493x422.jpg

http://cm1.theinsider.com/thumbnail/440/571/cm1.theinsider.com/media/0/553/71/kristen-stewart-interview-magazine-fancy-heels.jpg

http://cdn2.team-twilight.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/Flaunt1.jpg

http://i.realone.com/assets/rn/img/1/1/0/4/24604011-24604012-slarge.jpg

http://www.freewebs.com/willbecome/heroin%20chic%20girl%20on%20lawnchair.jpg

http://mrmaker.files.wordpress.com/2008/07/cory_nylon_l.jpg

http://www.photoartgallery.com/blog/post/Fashion-Photographer-Corinne-Day-Passes-Away.aspx  – September 2010 00:26 – Team (No official name to quote)

http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=heroin%20chic
wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn

http://www.nme.com/news/pusherman/41336

http://www.last.fm/music/Pusherman

http://www.last.fm/music/The+Pusherman/+images/27944285

http://www.facebook.com/pages/Pusherman/107585912603937

http://www.gimpelfils.com/artist_works.php?artist_id=7&view=

http://models.com/people/melanie-ward

http://www.misshapes.com/blog/misshapes/wp-content/uploads/2007/10/misshapes_melanie_ward.jpg

http://www.interviewmagazine.com/fashion/melanie-ward/

http://www.independentfilmquarterly.com/ifq/interviews/day.htm

http://www.independentfilmquarterly.com/ifq/interviews/day.htm (accessed 12 & 15/11/2010)

http://www.guardian.co.uk/theobserver/2000/sep/03/features.review7 (accessed 8, 9, 12 & 15/11/2010)

http://www.youtube.com/user/oasisinetofficial

http://showstudio.com/2006/08/24/13-01.jpg

http://wn.com/H&M_The_Secret_Garden

http://forums.thefashionspot.com/f109/face-july-1990-kate-moss-corinne-day-72836.html

http://www.libertylondongirl.com/2010/01/02/kate-moss-by-corinne-day-in-the-face-1990/

http://dossierjournal.com/style/fashion/the-untouchables-corrine-day-and-kate-moss/

http://www.guardian.co.uk/theobserver/2000/sep/03/features.review7 Quotes by Corinne Day (Taken from throughout her career) Sheryl Garratt – The Observer, Sunday 3 September 2000

http://www.vam.ac.uk/vastatic/microsites/photography/photographerframe.php?photographerid=ph016

http://www.corinneday.co.uk/home.php

http://www.corinneday.co.uk/bio.php

http://www.libertylondongirl.com/2010/01/02/kate-moss-by-corinne-day-in-the-face-1990/

http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcfour/documentaries/features/corinne-day.shtml

http://www.shuttervoice.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/Kate-Moss-Corinne-Day.jpg

http://www.guardian.co.uk/theobserver/2000/sep/03/features.review7

http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcfour/documentaries/features/corinne-day.shtml

http://www.ameliasmagazine.com/tag/mark-szaszy/

http://www.corrineday.co.uk/bio.php

http://uk.ykone.com/photographers/bio/corinne-day/

http://www.mediabistro.com/unbeige/remembering-corinne-day-1965-2010_b8575

http://fabricmag.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/CorinneDay.jpeg

http://shaides.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/Nan-Goldin.jpg

http://uk.ykone.com/photographers/bio/corinne-day/

http://addicted2b3.files.wordpress.com/2007/04/moss.jpg?w=497

http://www.channel4.com/news/media/2006/11/week_2/09_moss_by_day_gl.jpg

http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2010/02/04/article-1248594-064691F90000044D-940_474x531.jpg

http://www.taistoisoisbeau.com/blog/wp-content/2010/08/Kate-Moss-and-Corinne-Day.jpg

http://missprints.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/corinne_day_photo_171.jpg

http://fashionechoes.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/moss-by-corinne-day.jpg

http://fabricmag.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/CorinneDay.jpeg

http://991.com/newGallery/Pusherman-Floored-252940.jpg

http://www.vam.ac.uk/vastatic/microsites/photography/photographerframe.php?photographerid=ph016

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Is the ‘Heroin Chic’ look as catchy as it seems and how has it changed since Corinne Day started it?

 

Corinne Day was a model turned photographer after she realised that she didn’t have the right facial features and body to fit in with the then glamorous high end fashion models. She got her first big break after finding and photographing Kate Moss for the cover of The Face. It wasn’t long before the look she had created took off with the help of her ‘Fashion Family’ which consisted of Kate Moss, Mark Szaszy, Melanie Ward and Phil Becker. Although at the time it was known as ‘Grunge’, as the look evolved so did the name and she soon became the creator of the Heroin Chic look. It was the foundations for what we now know as the size zero look and with it has brought some drastic changes to society and how we as people perceive how we should look.

Heroin Chic has become a widely sort after look especially in Hollywood and therefore we are constantly bombarded with images of unhealthily thin people, especially girls, with lank blow away hair, deep circles under their eyes and an over all image that screams drug user.

Although Corinne Day took inspiration from other photographers, it was her who introduced this new genre of fashion to the world because of her own experiences as a model and not fitting the glamazon look.

“I was quite plain-looking for a model, Everything was so glamorous then, and I didn’t have the kind of face that could take makeup. I don’t have great cheekbones, or huge lips to pile lipstick on. When I first saw Christy Turlington, I realised that my hopes of ever getting on the cover of Vogue were gone. So I just made the best of it, and really enjoyed it – I loved the travelling.” [1] Corinne Day.

Her first pictures that graced the Kate Moss edition of The Face in 1990 were just the beginning steps to creating the look that would make her famous. For the following three years she continued taking photographs of Kate Moss but it wasn’t until she did a photo shoot for Vogue magazine in 1993 that people really started to question what these pictures were saying to the young girls who were looking at them. The magazine, the public and Kate Moss’s modelling agency took a stand and it wasn’t long before Corinne Day was being accused of promoting eating disorders such as anorexia, promoting the use of drugs and even paedophilia. Kate Moss also shut down communication with her after she started being bullied in school for her stick thin body and flat chest.

Although at this point, Corinne Day shied away from the spotlight and went on to do a documentary for the British rock band Pusherman, it was too late and the damage had been done. Other photographers had caught on to the Heroin Chic look and were using it in advertisements and magazines.

Between 1988 and 1993, when this look first pioneered statistics show a five time increase in eating disorders such as Bulimia Nervosa[2]. However, as the genre continued to grow so did the way the average public responded to it. By 1996, in the UK alone, hospitals had admitted four hundred and nineteen cases of anorexia and it was thought that only a very small few seek help. By 2000, it had risen again to four hundred and eighty two cases[3].

In 2000, Kate Moss and Corinne Day rejoined for a photo shoot as by then the hype and critical hatred towards the Heroin Chic look had died down. Corinne then started working on less Heroin Chic shoots and once again the Glamorous genre retook the spotlight.

By the time 2006 came around, the Heroin Chic look had started working its way back in and with it so did the rise in eating disorders and drug abusers. In 2006 alone there were six hundred and twenty new cases in the UK of admittance due to anorexia.

In 2008, British Newspaper The Daily Mail, listed one hundred and thirty seven males with the most severe cases of anorexia. This had risen from the eighty-two patients of the same condition in 01/02[4].

If you follow the trend of eating disorders rising and falling, it seems to match up almost instantly with the type of photographic genre that is being hurled at us. Weight loss is one of the biggest selling markets in both the UK and the USA, it is estimated to be at a net worth of ten billion a year and it seems to only be getting higher each year.

In the last few years, this look has been taken to the extreme by other photographers and even other media related people such as actors and musicians.

Thanks to the use of the internet, the public are able to create online communities for people who have the same interests as them and have the same goals. There has been a large increase in the amount of websites devoted to pro-ana and pro-mia and blogs that seem to worship the illness. It has created easy access for young girls to obsess over the weight of their favourite celebrities, especially one website that takes pride in knowing the exact weight and measurements. These websites set unrealistic goals as the majority of pictures have been airbrushed to look even smaller.

The use of airbrushing has become very prominent in today’s society and although everyone knows magazine photographs are airbrushed, people are still trying to get their bodies to look the same.

In 2002, the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) Information Clearinghouse released a fact sheet stating the rise in drug abuse in the United States. The statistics state that In 1993 50.2% of eighteen to twenty-five year olds were using drugs, by 2001 this had gone up to 55.6%.

As the imagery is spreading, so is the public following and teens as well as adults are striving to look like the models they see everywhere. Since Corinne Day first introduced it, the basic style has remained the same but the little details have changed keeping it more relevant. From looking at all the statistics and information I found out, I can see that there is clearly a following for this genre and that unfortunately it has lead to a more unhealthy lifestyle for a lot of people.

Sources – all accessed 29/11/2010:

[1] http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2010/sep/04/corinne-day-kate-moss Sheryl Garratt. The Guardian, Saturday 4 September 2010

[2] http://www.prioryhealthcare.com/Personal-Site/Mental-Health-and-Addictions/What–We-Treat/Eating-Disorders/Statistics-for-eating-disorders.aspx

[3] http://www.disordered-eating.co.uk/eating-disorders-statistics/anorexia-nervosa-statistics-uk.html

[4] http://www.miafriends.org/boxx/knowledgebase.asp?iid=65&Cat=16

Other sources:

http://pro-thinspo.com/proanatipsandtricksindexpage.html

https://susannaconnollycmp.files.wordpress.com/2010/11/proana6.jpg?w=300

http://anaregzig.blogspot.com/

The Beauty Myth: How images of beauty are used against women. Naomi Wolf. 2002. ISBN0-06051-2180

 

All images accessed 29/11/2010

Is the ‘Heroin Chic’ look as catchy as it seems and how has it changed since Corinne Day started it?

Introduction

Short Description about Corinne Day.
Definitions of Heroin Chic.


Main Body
More in-depth look at Corinne Day and her Fashion Family.
More in-depth look at what Heroin Chic is.
Why is it dangerous – including Statistics.
Who is it dangerous for?

Statistics on drug abuse and eating disorders

How has it changed since Corinne Day first started it?
How has the internet affected it.
How has editing suits like Photoshop effected it?
Is it really as popular as we are led to believe?


Conclusion
Sum up all the points.

Who was Corinne Day?

Corinne Day was a model turned photographer. After teaching her self photography she got her first big break from Phil Becker, the art director of The Face. She didn’t know any models for this shoot and after searching came across Kate Moss. She gave Kate Moss her big break at the age of fourteen and together with Melanie Ward and Mark Szaszy created the fashion family. In 1993 there was an incident with some photographs for Vogue of Kate Moss which lead to their separation as Kate started being bulled at school and Corinne came under fire for promoting eating disorders, drug use and paedophilia. It wasn’t until 2000 before she worked with her again. Corinne Day was diagnosed with a terminal illness (brain tumor) and died ten years later after marrying Mark Szaszy.

What is the Fashion Family?

The fashion family is the team that Corinne Day put together to develop the Heroin Chic look. The team consisted of Melanie Ward, Kate Moss, Mark Szaszy and Herself. The team split in 1993 after the Vogue shoot went under fire. Melanie Ward went to work at Harpers Bazaar in New York City, Kate Moss signed with Calvin Klein while Mark Szaszy and Corinne Day turned to drugs and started doing a Rockumentary for the British Rock Band Pusherman.

Who was Pusherman?

Pusherman was a British Rock Band that spilt after one album (three years) due to the heavy usage of drugs and alcohol. Two of the four members have since passed away.

Who is Georgina?

‘Georgina Ellen Cooper’ is a British model who started modelling at the age of fifteen after being in a Bon Jovi video. She is currently signed to Premier Model Management and has taken part in many fashion shows and photo shoots. I have found from my research that she was close friends with Corinne Day and models throughout Diary.

Who is Tara St Hill?

Tara St Hill became close friends with both Corinne Day and Mark Szaszy during the downfall period while they were hanging out with Pusherman. Tara St Hill suffers from an illness and Corinne Day decided to document ten years of her life (Diary). In this time it shows her ill, on drugs and pregnant.

What is Diary?

Diary is a ten year long documentary by Corinne Day. It is based around the life of Tara St Hill, however Corinne Day, Georgina Cooper, Mark Szaszy and a few others appear often through it.

Who is George?

I was unable to find out who George is.

Who is Nan Goldin and Larry Clark?

Nan Goldin and Larry Clark are photographers who Corinne Day took inspiration from and found their work to be liberating.

What is Heroin Chic?

Heroin Chic and Heroine Chic are both accepted as the same term. It is a term used for people who are skinny in the extreme, wear clothes too big for them, often don’t wear a lot of makeup or have last nights make up running down their face, their hair is thin and messy and look like they are always on drugs.

What were the meanings behind Georgina, Brixton?

I found a few meanings behind this photograph, the main one being that Corinne Day wanted to challenge what people had come to expect from beauty. Every little detail in the photograph goes against what conventional beauty is.

What was the significances of Georgina’s feet being dirty?

The reason for this was because on a normal high fashion shoot, every part of the model is polished in order to look flawless so by having Georgina’s feet dirty, I think it was to challenge the conventions of a fashion shoot.

Why was the model in her underwear?

From my research I found that Corinne Day liked to get close to a model before shooting them so that she would be able to capture the real person and not a fake version. It is very likely that the underwear was actually the models own property and for some reason she was walking around like that.

Why is the model posed like that?

I think given what I now know of Corinne Day, Georgina Cooper was more than likely drunk and/or high and fell over. I think it is probable that Corinne managed to take the photo to capture that moment, which is why she looks so awkward and unflattering.

Intertextuality

 

Intertextuality:

When a media text makes reference to another text that, on the surface, appears to be unique and distinct. [1]

Metatextuality:

is a form of intertextual discourse in which one text makes critical commentary on another text. This concept is related to Gérard Genette’s concept of hypertextuality in which a text changes or expands on the content of another text. [2]

Hypertextuality:

is a postmodern theory of the inter-connectedness of all literary works and their interpretation. [3]

Metatextuality:

is a form of intertextual discourse in which one text makes critical commentary on another text. This concept is related to Gérard Genette’s concept of hypertextuality in which a text changes or expands on the content of another text. [4]

“2. ARCHITEXTUALITY AND METAMEDIA

Genette means by architextuality “the entire set of general or transcendental categories – types of discourse, modes of enunciation, literary genres – from which emerges a singular text.”  This  taxonomic relation is now cybertextually challenged by ergodic discourses, textonomical genres and the concept of metamedia. At stake here is the whole necessary and unmanageable project of western poetics, be it what may, a cluster of modal, generic, formal and thematic categories and considerations, or just a general system of functions and possibilities.

Metamedia is taken here to mean that every form of digital literature could easily borrow and embed elements, devices and features previously associated with other forms of art and non-art. What are we supposed to make for example of textual movies, kinetic textual choreography, or textual architecture? They are definitely not multi- or intermedia but they don’t function like traditional literary objects either although their content is still strictly textual. We are moving here in the no man’s land between poetics and esthetics, a space that was not supposed to exist at all. If you want a practical example that goes even further, just observe the text to form editor at work in Christa Sommerer’s and Laurent Mignonneau’s Verbarium, and imagine adding to it a reverse process from form to text.

As we all know cybertext theory gives us 576 media positions or textonomical genres to describe how textual systems function. There has been no or little attempt to combine textonomical genres to their more traditional counterparts, that is, textological genres, or to study that relation. For example is hypertext fiction a new genre or mode or something else or something not so special after all – and what about the MOOs and MUDs? And should we state that Story Space and HyperCard products are of different genre? Basically, this means we should decide how to take into account the material and functional differences so foreign to western poetics for some 2500 years. The simple solution is to add a new parameter to the aforementioned cluster, the material-functional one consisting of 576 media positions. Similarly we can add our ergodic mode to those traditional narrative and dramatic ones, but that move may well cause more problems than it helps to solve because all media positions are clearly not ergodic.

There are also practical concerns whether or not we’ll accept the deconstructive law of genre that there is no such thing as pure genre. We can still show the general difference between digital cybertext hybrids and print hybrids, that is, between genre blenders and genre benders. In what comes to these hybrid forms and functions, any approach has sooner or later to face their bi- and multidirectional formation and transformation processes. This leads us to boundaries and over-lapping areas between narrative and drama, poetry and prose, fiction and non-fiction, and narratives and games. If we can imagine generators and other dynamic cybertextual machines crossing these borders n times to both directions, there’s not much sense to continue clinging to the concept of the architext anymore. This way out is a kind of short cut or short circuit since even though we got rid of the bigger problem completely, the smaller ones are still there to be solved.”

[5]

  • Intertextuality: The only similar works that I am aware of, were also done by Corinne Day and therefore I do not think this photograph is quoting another. However that could be my lack of knowledge and given more research I may come across something. This photograph seems to hold the essence of what the media has lead us into believe would be a reasonable scene for someone doing drugs and living that kind of lifestyle.
  • Architextuality: This photograph fits perfectly into the genre of Social Documentation as it is a clear picture of what living this lifestyle is like.
  • Metatextuality: Everything about this photograph is criticizing the fashion photography world. She has taken everything that fashion glamorous photographs have and reversed it. In stead of the flawless beauty who could pass as some kind of Goddess she has given us an average looking skinny girl, no makeup, no perfectly styled hair, chipped nail polish, a dirty floor, dirty feet and a horrible setting. Corinne is challenging the whole perspective of the fashion model’s perfect lifestyle and showing what I believe from research, is the more realistic lifestyle of fame.
  • Reflexivity: I believe that Corinne Day was very aware of every aspect in this photograph when she took it as everything about it challenges something else. Although there is (to my knowledge) no link to someone’s work directly, I think she took ideas from others and mixed it with the whole idea of the grunge scene (Heavy rock music, drugs, sex and rock’n’roll, do it for a laugh) and is there for very reflective but to a wide range of things.
  • Explicitness: When I first looked at this picture, although I wasn’t informed on everything that had influenced Corinne Day, I still seemed to make a few right assumptions about it. My original thoughts were pretty correct and therefore I think this photograph is very explicit. I grasped many of the meanings that I believe Corinne Day wanted to portray with very little knowledge of the fashion industry and photography, which now that I have done research I am able to fully understand and I have recognised a few other little bits that I had not originally picked up on.
  • Criticality to Comprehension: When I first began this, I had very little pre-knowledge about this industry and therefore I do not believe you need a great deal to understand this. The preconceptions of beauty are everywhere in the media and I think you pick up on them without realising and therefore they become basic knowledge. We are constantly bombarded with imagery of  the perfect body, perfect hair and the perfect features that when we see a photograph, like this one, we instantly notice the differences and although we may not understand the entire reasoning behind them we do get the gist of it.
  • Alteration: From my previous research I have found that there was a great deal of this kind of photography that stemmed from photographers like Corinne Day and Nan Goldin. However it seemed to be more underground at the time and the over glamorous photographs were gracing magazine covers and advertisements. Yet, from my own personal experience, I have come in to contact with this type of photography over the years and it seems to be becoming more popular especially in magazines like Nylon and Interview. Therefore I don’t think that much has changed. There seems to be two separate fashion photography styles now, this one and the glamorised one.

 

 

Sources – all accessed 27/11/2010

[1] http://www.medialit.org/reading-room/language-media-literacy-glossary-terms

[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metatextuality

[3]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypertextuality

[4]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metatextuality

[5]http://www.kolumbus.fi/mareske/page231.html

Over the last couple of years, two terms have arisen to describe the type of eating disorder a person may have;  Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia. They have become part of an online community where they can discuss experiences and methods (tips and tricks) to lose weight.

Each website has a page devoted to what they call ‘Thinspiration’. This is basically a gallery of photographs of the thinnest celebrities.

 

 

The following is taken from the home page on Pro-ana-nation.com

“Prothinspo has the largest selection of diet, exercise and celebrity weight loss in the world. With a
thinspiration gallery to keep you motivated visually with Celebrity and Supermodel
Tips and Tricks to weight loss” [1]

Pro-ana eating chart [2]

Dying to be Thin… a pro ana blog Is a blog about a female celebrity (anonymousness) who struggles to keep to the desired ‘media’ weight limit. She constantly refers to other celebrities in her blog and speaks of the trouble she has trying to keep up with everyone else’s weight loss. She spokes constantly of ‘Joining the club’ and gives praise to those who have managed to become a successfull anorexic. There is one entry where she speaks of winning an award but is only worried about the six pound she had been forced to gain.

Sunday, July 19, 2009

After a very stressful few weeks, and a very naughty weekend, I am feeling quite… (how shall we say) unqualified to fit into my skinny jeans this week.

So, now that I feel like a lot of the heat has let off, it’s time for a good old-fashioned FAST. Just a little one, to see if anyone notices. It’s 6 pm here on the east coast, and I have a party to go to tonight, followed by 2 auditions tomorrow, and another party tomorrow night. Evenings are usually my gym-time, so without an outlet for my persistent anxiety, I feel like I’d rather control my food intake if I can’t get a grip on my energy output.

To keep eyebrows from raising, I’m going to try to keep pushing the fluids, keeping a drink of some kind with me at all times, to give an illusion of intake. However, I will try to keep these calorie counts down as well. Mostly water, maybe a little bit of VitaminWater, a sip or two of soymilk for breakfast, and coke zero if I MUST have caffeination. But no food. Until at least midnight tomorrow (Monday night).

I’m already anticipating the high!! And looking forward to telling ya’ll how it went. God, I hope I get away with this. Depending on how it goes, who knows what I might do after this?

Who’s fasting with me? 30 hours food-free! Let’s do it! Think beautiful thoughts, girls! XOXO!

Sunday, July 19, 2009

 

After a very stressful few weeks, and a very naughty weekend, I am feeling quite… (how shall we say) unqualified to fit into my skinny jeans this week. 

So, now that I feel like a lot of the heat has let off, it’s time for a good old-fashioned FAST. Just a little one, to see if anyone notices. It’s 6 pm here on the east coast, and I have a party to go to tonight, followed by 2 auditions tomorrow, and another party tomorrow night. Evenings are usually my gym-time, so without an outlet for my persistent anxiety, I feel like I’d rather control my food intake if I can’t get a grip on my energy output.

To keep eyebrows from raising, I’m going to try to keep pushing the fluids, keeping a drink of some kind with me at all times, to give an illusion of intake. However, I will try to keep these calorie counts down as well. Mostly water, maybe a little bit of VitaminWater, a sip or two of soymilk for breakfast, and coke zero if I MUST have caffeination. But no food. Until at least midnight tomorrow (Monday night).

I’m already anticipating the high!! And looking forward to telling ya’ll how it went. God, I hope I get away with this. Depending on how it goes, who knows what I might do after this?

Who’s fasting with me? 30 hours food-free! Let’s do it! Think beautiful thoughts, girls! XOXO!

Posted by Ana at 5:39 PM 97 comments

Wednesday, July 8, 2009

I’ve been reading Marya’s book again. The last time I read it, it triggered me into a summer of long-term fasts (lost 20 pounds in 3 months), so I’m wondering what will happen to me now that “I’ve been rehabilitated.” It’s such a wonderful account of her journey. Those of you who’ve commented that you enjoy reading my stuff, I HIGHLY recommend you read this book. She’s a fucking fantastic writer. She’s a freakin’ phenom, and I aspire to be her one day.

I’m not in ana-mode right now. No. Not that I don’t want to. I’ve been back out on my own for several months now, but I’m still not entirely sure that I’m not being watched. But I can see the ana creeping back in. I’m back to my daily routine-making, gaining control. I’ve been having a bowl of cereal for breakfast (300 cals), a salad for lunch (440 cals), and a latte for dinner (260 cals), followed by 8-10 miles at the gym (950 cals) every day for the past few weeks. Some days work has gotten in the way, and I’ve had to switch to have the latte for lunch and the salad for dinner. And weekends are way harder when I’m out with friends. But for the most part I’ve been able to stick to it.

I’m not weighing myself. The scale is in the bathroom, and it’s a struggle in my head every morning deciding whether to look or not. I don’t want to know. I just know that I’m not even close to my all-time low weight, so I know I’ll hate myself and relaspe for sure if I look. I’m scared to look. But I’m dying to know. I hate myself.

A little bit of trauma in my life lately. Same boy who left me for “fat cow”, then broke up with her in November just shortly after I got sent away, then tried to get back with me when I got out… hasn’t talked to me for about 3 months. I was ok with that. Until last week when he randomly decided to call me up for dinner, only to let me know that he’d met another girl and he’s going to marry her. (SFX bomb-drop) Not that I ever really expected to marry him, but shit. Who decides to marry someone after only 3 or 4 dates? Apparently he does.

So yeah, that’s been a little bit triggering. Had a helluva 11-mile run at the gym that night. But unfortunately that tipped me over the edge: I twisted my right hip and it’s been aggravated since, keeping me from going to the gym the past 5 days. So trauma is just that much more… shitty.

I hate this life. Why do I bother to persist?

Secret to Brittny Gastineau’s success? Try anorexia

Posted Oct 22nd 2007 4:58PM by Anne Metz on Styledash.com

There’s a zen koan that says if you meet the Buddha on the road, kill him.

Now I don’t know anything about meeting Buddha, but I can say that if you meet a model on the road who says she loves to eat, don’t believe her — especially if she’s ex-reality TV-star Brittny Gastineau.

The raven-haired Gastineau recently told Jay Leno’s “Ross the Intern” that she stayed thin through anorexia.

Was she kidding? Well, if you trace Gastineau’s incredible weight loss over the past year (I don’t — I honestly didn’t know who she was until thirty minutes ago), you’d probably conclude that she was speaking the truth. But still, the confession seems awfully weird.

One thing is certain, admitting to an eating disorder is not a good way to jump start a modeling career, which her friends say is the motivation behind her shrinking frame. Even though most agents and designers would be chomping at the bit to get a 5’11 girl who weighs just 105 pounds, I doubt anyone is willing to touch her now that she’s publicly admitted she’s an anorexic. The fashion industry can’t continue to exist as it is without putting forth the illusion that models its healthy and naturally thin. The fact is once a model says she’s sick, the gig’s up.
……………………………………………………………

I’m sorry, but this is just stupidity at its best. I’m happy for her, glad that she’s lost such huge amounts of weight, that she’s had the willpower to stay with it for so long. But why the HELL would you flush it all away by openly admitting on NATIONAL television that you did it with anorexia???

Let this be a lesson, girls. KEEP YOUR ANONYMITY AT ALL COSTS. Keep the secret. That’s exactly WHY we have these blogs and facebook profiles and none of us use our real name. It’s only truly WORKING if you can still smile and say, “I’m just blessed with a fast metabolism.”

Ugh.

Nicole – Ana gets your joke and LUVS it!!!!!!!

Nicole Richie: ‘Weight-Limit’ E-Mail Was a Joke

Nicole Richie sent friends what she thought was a humorous e-mail invitation to her Memorial Day barbecue – and she can’t understand why people don’t get the joke.

“Let’s glorify this day in your sluttiest tops and your tightest pair of Tsubi jeans, even though we have no clue what Memorial Day really means!!” she wrote. “There will be a scale at the front door. No girls over 100 pounds allowed in. Start starving yourself now. See you all then!!!”

The e-mail was quickly leaked to bloggers, who read it to mean that Richie was making fun of both Memorial Day and her own ongoing weight issues (she said last year she was seeking treatment for what her rep called an inability to put on weight).

But Richie, 25, told Ryan Seacrest on his KIIS-FM radio show Wednesday that she can’t understand the fallout: “I mean, it rhymes. Are you really going to take an e-mail that rhymes that seriously? And it’s a private e-mail to my friends. I was joking and I don’t think there’s anything wrong with it.”

The e-mail was hardly the biggest newsmaker of the holiday weekend, however: Mischa Barton became sick at Richie’s barbecue and was briefly hospitalized for what her rep described as a bad reaction to medication she was taking for bronchitis.

When Seacrest said he’d heard a news report that Barton was rushed to the hospital after mixing alcohol and antibiotics, Richie answered, “I went to Ralph’s [grocery store] because I wanted Sunny Delight. So I actually missed the whole thing.”

Lindsay Lohan also attended the barbecue, but Richie said she didn’t see her there: “I think she was there for five minutes. I was at Ralph’s. No, I really was! I was at Ralph’s for 40 minutes. I saw Mischa, but I missed Lindsay.”

Richie also addressed recent rumors that she had entered rehab, saying the stories got started merely because she hadn’t been photographed by paparazzi for a few weeks.

“The truth was is that I was on tour with Joel [Madden] and we were in random city after random city,” she said.

Saturday, April 21, 2007

Hail Saint Ana Nicole

THIS is what I mean by successful anorexia… getting thinner and thinner, yet staying alive and keeping it hidden from the entire world.

People magazine has done a great job of keeping up with Nicole’s latest scheme to hide her disease. Back in November, Nicole looked like this…
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
…and publicized that she was “seeking treatment” to determine why she “could not gain weight.” However, she and her entire team [inluding her DUNDERHEAD father!] have made sure to stress that she “does eat” and that she “is NOT being treated for an eating disorder.”

All Hail!!! When you can be in the spotlight every single day, out at all the biggest public arenas, constantly hounded by paparazzi, and yet STILL hide your E.D. from the WWOORRLLDD!!!!

You are the QUEEN of the Anas!!!!

Here’s some of the articles People has been publishing:
11/3/06 – Inside Nicole Richie’s Weight Crisis

11/30/06 – Nicole Richie’s Road to Recovery

3/3/07 – Nicole Richie Treated for Dehydration

3/21/07 – Rep Says Nicole Richie Is Hypoglycemic


Then, just days after “seeking treatment,” this picture of her “five pounds heavier” appears: >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Nicole, my ana goddess, those five won’t be hard to take off… you still look great, and you’ve managed to get everyone off your back! You are my THINspiration!!!

Friday, April 20, 2007

More saints…


Once photos of Courtney Love in a bikini surfaced, fans, reporters and bloggers alike wondered how she dropped so many pounds so fast. Some speculated Gastric-band surgery (her rep denied it), she says inspiration by “Oprah.”

Or could it be Ana?…

Saint Ana Allegra >>>

In a statement, Donatella Versace and Paul Beck said their daughter Allegra Versace “has been battling anorexia, a very serious disease, for many years.”

<<< Saint Ana Chloe

Actress Chloe Lattanzi, daughter of Olivia Newton-John, recently admitted to her struggle with the debilitating eating disorder.

And the Ana queen herself! All Hail!

Despite fainting spells, a super-skinny frame and much speculation, Nicole Richie has repeatedly denied that she suffers from any eating disorder.

Nicole, you are my patron saint! Saint Ana Nicole!!!

[3]


Sources accessed 26/11/2010:

[1] http://pro-thinspo.com/proanatipsandtricksindexpage.html

[2] https://susannaconnollycmp.files.wordpress.com/2010/11/proana6.jpg?w=300

[3]http://anaregzig.blogspot.com/

“…But female fat is the subject of public passion, and women feel guilty about female fat, because we implicitly recognize that under the myth, women’s bodies are not our own but society’s, and that thinness is not a private aesthetic, but hunger a social concession exacted by the community.” [4]

 

Naomi Wolf [8]

“The formula must also include an element that contradicts and then undermines the overall pro-woman fare: in diet, skin care, and surgery features, it sells women the deadliest version of the beauty myth money can buy… When you see the way a woman’s curves swell at the hips and again at the thighs, you could claim that that is an abnormal deformity, Or you could tell the truth: 75% of women are shaped like that, and soft, rounded hips and thighs and bellies were perceived as desirable and sensual without question until women got the vote.” [6]

The Beauty Myth by Naomi Wolf

“If you have wasted even a minute of today worrying about the way your hair, breasts or thighs look, or about the wrinkles around your eyes, or whether your winter “wardrobe” is working for you … this book is for you. Wolf argues that beauty is the “last, best belief system that keeps male dominance intact”. Somehow we’ve been flogged the idea that to be beautiful (which we must, or else no one will love us) we have to look a certain way: thin, youthful, smooth-skinned, small-nosed, silky-haired, etc. Hey presto: your average woman feels ugly her entire life, and old, too, for most of it. What better way of keeping her in her place?” [1]

In 1991 Naomi Wolf published a book called ‘The Beauty Myth’ in which she blames the media such as fashion magazines for imprinting this idea of perfection on to public, which leads to a high number of Anorexic and Bulimic cases.

“Then big money makes an entrance, and it all gets nice and clear: women who feel old and ugly will buy things they do not need. An “anti-ageing” cream, say, or a blouse very little different from the blouses they already have.” [1]

“]

Lily Allen and Kate Moss [10]

The Beauty Myth is the idea that buy simply allowing yourself to buy something that promotes beauty will make you beautiful.  Recently music artist Lily Allen (Who is known as a close friend of Kate Moss) released a song called ‘Everything’s just wonderful’ in which her lyrics are directly linked to this theory and to Kate Moss.

“…I wanna be able to eat spaghetti bolognaise,
and not feel bad about it for days and days and days.
In the magazines they talk about weight loss,
If I buy those jeans I can look like Kate Moss…” [2]

[3] (1:40 – 1:52)

“Today, women have access to the technological capacity to do anything to our bodies in the struggle for “beauty”, but we have yet to evolve a mentality beyond the old rules, to let them imagine that this combat among women is not inevitable. Surgeons can now do anything. We have not yet reached the age in which we can defend ourselves with an unwillingness to have “anything” done. This is a dangerous time. New possibilities for women quickly become new obligations. ”  [4]

When looking at the idea of “The Beauty Myth” and comparing it to Corinne Day’s idea of Beauty, it is possible to see that Corinne’s idea is not setting a good example to young girls as they feel the need to copy what they see in the magazine (especially as the Heroine Chic look is everywhere at the moment) therefore promoting eating disorders to become extremely thin and using drugs.

Statistics show that there has been a high rise in numbers to do with eating disorders since the Heroine Chic look became popular.

Young People:
·    Anorexia is the 3rd most common chronic illness among adolescents.
·    Eating disorders are higher among young women with type 1 diabetes than among young women in the general population.
·    95% of those who have eating disorders are between the ages of 12 and 25.
·    28% of high school males attempt to gain weight through weight lifting.
·    25% of college-aged women engage in bingeing and purging as a weight-management technique.
·    50% of girls between the ages of 11 and 13 see themselves as overweight.
·    80% of 13-year-olds have attempted to lose weight.
·    15% of young women in the US who are not diagnosed with an eating disorder display substantially disordered eating attitudes and behaviours.
·    About 72% of alcoholic women younger than 30 also have an eating disorder.
[5]

Statistics were also released about the Media’s idea of the perfect body for females.

Media
·    The body type portrayed in advertising as the ideal is possessed naturally by only 5% of the American females.
·    The average model weighs 23% less than the average woman.
·    90% of all girls ages 3-11 have a Barbie doll, an early role model with a figure that is unattainable in real life.
·    47% of girls in 5th-12th grade reported wanting to lose weight because of magazine pictures.
·    69% of girls in 5th-12th grade reported that magazine pictures influenced their idea of a perfect body shape.
·    Officials, in Fiji, reported a sudden increase in anorexia and bulimia with the arrival of television in their communities.
·    The primary reason for following a nutrition or fitness plan was to lose weight and to become more attractive rather than to improve overall health and well being, according to mainstream nutrition and fitness magazines from 1970-1990.
[5]

Definitions of the different types of Eating Disorders which are the most popular today.

Anorexia Nervosa is characterized by an intentional loss of a substantial amount of one’s body weight (loss of 15% of normal body weight) that is accomplished through severe dieting and/or purging.  Anorexics have an intense fear of fat, and their preoccupation with food and weight is often used to mask other issues.  Those with anorexia are often characterized as perfectionists and overachievers who appear to be in control.  Peak times for onset of anorexia are at ages 12-13 and at age 17, known times of development (although signs of eating disorders in elderly populations are rising).

Bulimia Nervosa is an eating disorder where an individual engages in recurrent (an average of twice a week for 3 months) bingeing and purging.  Bingeing usually involves a rapid consumption of large amounts of food (binges can range from 1,000-30,000 calories).  The bulimic then attempts to rid his/her body of the food by purging (vomiting, laxatives, exercise, and/or fasting).  The bulimic may not be visibly underweight and may in fact be slightly overweight due to the binge-purge cycle.  Individuals with bulimia are often characterized as having a hard time dealing with and controlling impulses, stress, and anxieties.  Onset for this disorder is common in the late teens and early 20s.

Binge Eating Disorder (BED), more commonly known as compulsive overeating, is the most newly recognized among the three designated eating disorders.  People with this condition engage in frequent binges, but unlike the bulimic, she/he does not purge afterward.  Binges are followed by intense feelings of shame, disgust, and guilt.  The illness usually begins in late adolescence or in the early 20s, often coming soon after significant weight loss from dieting (reason why dieters often say, “I’ve gained all my weight back and more”).  Researchers show that anywhere between 15-50% of individuals enrolled in dieting programs suffer from BED.

Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified is the category that a person might be diagnosed with if they do not fit the criteria for any specific eating disorder. For example:
·    If a female meets all the criteria for anorexia, but still has regular menses. Or if all the criteria are met for anorexia except the person maintains a normal weight.
·    For bulimia, all the criteria are met except that the bingeing and purging happen less than twice a week or occur less than three months. Or if the person does not binge, but still engages in purging (e.g. self-induced vomiting after eating two cookies).
·    Another characteristic is repeatedly chewing and spitting out, but not swallowing, large amounts of food.
[5]

“I, unfortunately know all too much about anorexia from my own personal experience. The reason I wanted to question what was the conventional wisdom when I first began looking at this issue, was that when I remembered how I became anorexic, it wasn’t a particularly neurotic process. When I was thirteen, perfectly average sized kid, a boy, Bobby Sherman, poked me in the stomach, and said ‘Watch it Wolf.’ The implication was that I was getting chubby and I immediately did what Cosmo suggest that I should do.”  [7]


Sources all accessed 24/11/2010

[1] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2005/oct/18/classics.shopping accessed 22/11/2010. Emily Wilson. The Guardian. Tuesday 18 October 2005.
[2] Lily Allen. Everything’s Just Wonderful. Off album: All Right Still.
[3] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n_ZW_pUQx2s Lily Allen. Everything’s Just Wonderful.
[4] Naomi Wolf. Unknown date. http://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/22393.Naomi_Wolf
[5] http://www.renfrewcenter.com/uploads/resources/1067338472_1.doc Downloadable PDF
[6] The Beauty Myth: How images of beauty are used against women. Naomi Wolf. 2002. ISBN0-06051-2180
[7] From her address at Dying to be Thin: The prevention of eating disorders and the role of Federal policy, An APA Co-Sponsored Congressional Briefing – July, 1997. Naomi Wolf

[8] image: http://www.theredmountainpost.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/naomi-wolf-2.jpg

[9] image: http://haergar06.files.wordpress.com/2010/04/beauty-myth.jpg

[10] http://www.thevine.com.au/resources/GALLIMAGE/300608103040_kate_moss_lily_allen_01_wen.jpg

Semiotics:

One of the broadest definitions is that of Umberto Eco, who states that ‘Semiotics is concerned with everything that can be taken as a sign’ … Semiotics is concerned with meaning making and representation in many forms, perhaps the most obvious in the form of ‘Texts’ and ‘Media’. [0]

Denotation:

The act of indicating or pointing out by name. The most direct or specific meaning of a word or expression; the class of objects that an expression refers to. [1]

In semiotics, denotation is the surface or literal meaning encoded to a signifier, and the definition most likely to appear in a dictionary. [2]

Connotation:

What you must know in order to determine the reference of an expression. An idea that is implied or suggested. [3]

In semiotics, connotation arises when the denotative relationship between a signifier and its signified is inadequate to serve the needs of the community. A second level of meanings is termed connotative. [4]

 

Created 20/11/2010


Sources

[0] Chandler, Daniel. (2001). Semiotics: The Basics. London: Routledge.
1st edition. ISBN0-415-26593-2. Page 2

[1]http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=denotation

[2]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denotation_%28semiotics%29

[3]http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=connotation

[4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Connotation_%28semiotics%29

History of Fashion Trends

”]

 

1980s
This was the decade of Madonna, Michael Jackson, and extravagance and extremes in style. Leggings, headbands, shoulder pads, and workout wear dominated. For the first time men’s fashion became a force all its own. Miami Vice-style (white suits, rolled sleeves, and blow-dried style) appeared.

 

“]

 

1990s
Grunge, Goth, and a sense of anti-style appeared. Individualism reigned. For the first time, body art such as tattoos and body piercings were seen in mainstream culture. Coco Chanel rolled in her grave.

 

 

 “]”]

2000s
The trend of “climate chic”buying clothes based on ethical credentialsappears. Faux fur, organic fibers, and other products that benefit the environment are modeled by stars such as Julia Roberts and Leonardo di Caprio.

Current fashion has moved away from one universal style for all and instead various segments of the consuming public, especially the young, are likely to dress in fashions that show that they belong to a particular group or a style tribe. Writer Ted Polhemus appears to have coined this phrase. Examples of some of the better known youthful style tribes are punks, goths, hip-hop fans, and ravers.

 

Nancy Rosenberg. Helium.com. Unknown date.

http://www.helium.com/items/145448-a-brief-history-of-fashion-trends?page=2 accessed 20/11/2010

 

 “]”]

 

 

Sources- images – all accessed 20/11/2010

[1] http://entimg.msn.com/i/filmfashion/DesperatelySeekingSusan_300x298.jpg

[2] http://x48.xanga.com/51bf57e510733255810239/z203445185.jpg

[3] http://www.refinery29.com/pipeline/img/madonna-leotard-mania.jpg

[4] http://www.wmagazine.com/images/fashion/2010/02/faar_madonna_01_h.jpg